Wednesday, 6 January 2021

Online Digital Old Testament Manuscripts and Editions

This page is a list of digital images of manuscripts and editions available online. This catalogue should be viewed as a work in progress, and I will continue to update it with new resources. It is by no means complete, but I hope it will be helpful for those looking for a one-stop portal for finding online primary resources that are significant for the study of the Old Testament text. Please post any additional sources you may be aware of in the comments, and I will incorporate them into the main list.

Dead Sea Scrolls

Nash Papyrus

Medieval Jewish Hebrew Biblical Manuscripts

Medieval Samaritan Hebrew Biblical Manuscripts
Greek Majuscule Manuscripts

Greek Papyri

Greek Minuscules

Latin Manuscrips

Aramaic Targums

Related Literature

Friday, 13 November 2020

Woman caught in adultery


The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman caught in adultery, and having set her in the center of the court, and said to Jesus, "Teacher, this woman was caught in the act of adultery. In the Law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?" (John 8:3-5)


Very problematic story. Firstly, this story known as The Pericope de Adultera is missing from the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament. Secondly, even if the story did hold any credibility it makes no sense. The scribes and pharisees brought a woman caught in adultery? Wait since when did the scribes and pharisees go out hunting for woman committing adultery? How do they know she committed adultery where was the man who participated with her?


Why bring the woman alone leaving the man out? How do they know she was not a prostitute since prostitution was common during that time, even Jesus himself made mention of them and even praised them. whats worse some Catholics say Mary Magdelene was a prostitute herself before she became a follower.


Jews said "the Law Moses commanded us to stone such women" but that’s not what the law say.

And the man that committeth adultery with another man's wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death. (Leviticus 20:10)


Also, according to the Talmud the ruling is, if both man and woman are caught in adultery are executed by strangulation not stoned. Why then did Jesus say cast the first stone when that was not the execution procedure?

The Law says both man and woman must face the same punishment. The question is, where was the man and why didn't Jesus correct the what the law said and ask where is the man and those who witnessed it? Remember for such a big allegation there must be witnesses Yavamot 24b so, where were they?


This could not have been a fair trial in any shape of form and does not fit the Judaic legal system based on the written and oral law. The whole story is a joke and cannot be taken seriously. No Jewish scribe, Pharisee would bring a random woman to a man they did not take as authority.

The fact Jesus not correcting them says a lot.


• The man was not present.

• The woman alone cannot be tried

• The law requires witness's

• Jewish legal procedure must take place in front of a judge in court


The story is a shamble. Unhistorical and baseless.


Wednesday, 14 October 2020

Was `Uzayr (Ezra) Called The Son Of God?


Islamic Awareness

© Islamic Awareness, All Rights Reserved.

Last Modified: 1st September 1999

Assalamu-`alaikum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu:

`Uzayr, who was exalted by a community of Jews, is identified as Ezra by Muslim commentators. The Qur'an says:

The Jews call `Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is the saying from their mouth; (In this) they are intimate; what the Unbelievers of the old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the truth. [Qur'an 9:30]

Before we take care of the origin of the issue of exalting Ezra to son of God by some Jews, let us first discuss the life of the man himself.

Ezra (5th-4th century BC, Babylon and Jerusalem) was a religious leader of the Jews who returned from exile in Babylon, and a reformer who reconstituted the Jewish community on the basis of the Torah (Law, or the regulations of the first five books of the Old Testament). This monumental work of Ezra helped to make Judaism a religion in which law was central, that enabled the Jews to survive as a community when they were dispersed all over the world. Ezra has with some justice been called the father of Judaism since his efforts did much to give Jewish religion the form that was to characterize it for centuries after the specific form the Jewish religion took after the Babylonian Exile. So important was he in the eyes of his people that later tradition regarded him as no less than a second Moses(P). Regarding the tomb of Ezra Encyclopaedia Judaica says:

There are number of traditions concerning the site of Ezra's tomb. According to Josephus it is in Jerusalem; other hold that he was buried in Urta or in Zunzumu on the Tigris; but the general accepted version is that his tomb is situated in Uzer, a village near Basra. This tradition is mentioned by Benjamin of Tuleda, Pethahiah of Regensburg, Judah Alharizi, and other travelers, Jewish and non-Jewish who visited Babylonia.[1]

It is to be kept in mind that the knowledge about Ezra is derived from the Biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah, supplemented by the Apocryphal (not included in the Jewish and Protestant canons of the Old Testament but present in Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churchs' canon) book of I Esdras (Latin Vulgate form of the name Ezra), which preserves the Greek text of Ezra and a part of Nehemiah.

It is interesting to note that the Jews in Arabia, during the advent of Islam, were involved in mystical speculation as well as anthromorphizing and worshipping an angel that functions as the substitute creator of the universe. That angel is usually identified as Metatron[2]. Newby notes that:

...we can deduce that the inhabitants of Hijaz during Muhammad's time knew portions, at least, of 3 Enoch in association with the Jews. The angels over which Metatron becomes chief are identified in the Enoch traditions as the sons of God, the Bene Elohim, the Watchers, the fallen ones as the causer of the flood. In 1 Enoch, and 4 Ezra, the term Son of God can be applied to the Messiah, but most often it is applied to the righteous men, of whom Jewish tradition holds there to be no more righteous than the ones God elected to translate to heaven alive. It is easy, then, to imagine that among the Jews of the Hijaz who were apparently involved in mystical speculations associated with the merkabah, Ezra, because of the traditions of his translation, because of his piety, and particularly because he was equated with Enoch as the Scribe of God, could be termed one of the Bene Elohim. And, of course, he would fit the description of religious leader (one of the ahbar of the Qur'an 9:31) whom the Jews had exalted.[3]

The Islamic exegetes have mentioned that there existed a community of Jews in Yemen who considered Ezra as son of God. Hirschberg says in Encyclopaedia Judaica:

H. Z. Hirschberg proposed another assumption, based on the words of Ibn Hazm, namely, that the 'righteous who live in Yemen believed that 'Uzayr was indeed the son of Allah.' According to other Muslim sources, there were some Yemenite Jews who had converted to Islam who believed that Ezra was the messiah. For Muhammad, Ezra, the apostle (!) of messiah, can be seen in the same light as the Christian saw Jesus, the messiah, the son of Allah.[4]

George Sale makes an interesting comment concerning the Muslim as well as Judeo-Christian opinion on this issue.

This grievous charge against the Jews, the commentators endeavour to support by telling us, that it is meant of some ancient heterdox Jews, or else of some Jews of Medina; who said so for no other reason, than for that the law being utterly lost and forgotten during the Babylonish captivity, Ezra having been raised to life after he had been dead one hundred years, dictated the whole anew unto the scribes, out of his own memory; at which they greatly marvelled, and declared that he could not have done it, unless he were the son of God. Al-Beidawi adds, that the imputation must be true, because this verse was read to the Jews and they did not contradict it; which they were ready enough to do in other instances.

That Ezra did restore not only the Pentateuch, but also the other books of the Old Testament, by divine revelation, was the opinion of several of the Christian fathers, who are quoted by Dr.Prideaux, and of some other writers; which they seem to have first borrowed from a passage in that very ancient apocryphal book, called in our English Bible, the second book of Esdras. Dr. Prideaux tells us, that herein the Fathers attributed more to Ezra, than the Jews themselves, which he laboured much in, and went a great way in the perfecting of it. It is not improbable however, that the fiction came originally from the Jews, though they be now of another opinion, and I cannot fix it upon them by any direct proof. For, not to insist upon the testimony of the Mohammedans (which yet I cannot but think of some little weight in a point of this nature,) it is allowed by the most sagacious critics, that the second book of Ezra was written by a Chrisitian indeed, but yet one who had been bred a Jew, and was intimately acquainted with the fables of the Rabbins; and the story itself is perfectly in the taste and was of thinking of those men.[5]

Last but not the least, a Christian writer also proposed that Muhammad(P) got the information of Jews exalting Ezra to son of God from the Samaritans who said the Ezra had acted presumptuously and had changed the old divine alphabetical character of the holy Books of the Law - a character still used and revered to this day by rapidly dwindling Samaritan community.[6] This author concludes in a rather unchristian way that:

But it is not at all unlikely that the source of Mohammed's indictment of the Jews is to be found among the Samaritans or amongst Arab tribesmen of Samaritan strain. If we found in Samaritan literature the opposite belief that Ezra (or Uzair) was the son of Satan, we would be well-nigh sure of having settled the matter.[7]

And Allah knows best!


[1] Encyclopaedia JudaicaVolume 6, Encylopedia Judaica Jerusalem, p. 1108.

[2] G. D. Newby, A History Of The Jews Of Arabia, 1988, University Of South Carolina Press, p. 59.

[3] Ibid, p. 61.

[4] Encyclopaedia JudaicaIbid., p. 1108.

[5] George Sale, The Koran, IX Edition of 1923, London, p. 152.

[6] J. Walker, "Who Is 'Uzair?", The Moslem World, Volume XIX, No. 3, 1939, pp. 305-306.

[7] Ibid, p. 306.

Friday, 9 October 2020

Exodus 24:12 Oral law

 "The LORD said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and wait there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the Torah (תּוֹרָה)and commandments which I have inscribed to instruct them.” (Exodus 24:12)

According to Exodus, Moses went up Mount Sinai where he received the tablets, the Torah and commandments. Did you catch the problem?


Moses received the "TORAH" alongside the tablets and commandments. Yet the Jews claim Moses wrote the Torah found in the Bible? If that's the case, what did he receive in mount Sinai? The verse is clear, Moses received the Torah. Where exactly is this Torah?


 Nowhere in the 5 books known as the "Torah" do we find anywhere written where Moses wrote them. bear in mind Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy are stories and events of Moses and the children of Israel.  Ask yourself this question how do you know Genesis was written by Moses? Where exactly does it say Moses wrote Genesis or any of the books? It's all through tradition. Learned Jews know perfectly well the Pentateuch was not written by Moses. 


Also, notice the text says, God has written them to teach them. this would refer to the oral law which Christians reject.  Rashi a giant Jewish scholar writes in his commentary


את לחת האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורתם [AND I WILL GIVE THEE] THE TABLETS OF STONE, AND THE LAW, AND THE COMMANDMENT WHICH I HAVE WRITTEN TO TEACH THEM — All the six hundred and thirteen commandments are implicitly contained in the Ten Commandments and may therefore be regarded as having been written on the tablets. Rabbi Saadia specified in the אזהרות which he has composed those commandments which may be associated with each of the Ten Commandments. (Rashi commentary on Exodus 24:12)


Now this might be a lot for Christians to swallow however, looking at it from a neutral stance shows the Torah is not the 5 books found in the Bible known as the Pentateuch.


If Richard Dawkins wrote a book on Christianity and Atheism and in his book he quoted few verses from the Old & New Testament, will you call his book the inspired word of God? Of-course not that will be foolish. Instead you will say his book has a few citations from the bible hence, its not the inspired word of God, rather words of God extracted from the inspired books and added to his book. In a similar way when we say your book is corrupted, we can say there may be some words here and there which were revealed to Prophets by God that are probably found within your books. We do not believe those writings to be the direct verbatim words of the prophets, rather paraphrases. The Quran is our criteria. When we read a text, which parallels to what we believe then we will not have an issue with it, nor will we call it corrupt. Take for example Surah 5:45 something similar if found in your bible Exodus 24:21. So Corruption does not mean the whole body of the text is infected, rather there may be some text which hold truth, again one has to use the Quran as the criteria, but generally your bible is corrupted and cannot be taken as authority.

Online Digital Old Testament Manuscripts and Editions

This page is a list of digital images of manuscripts and editions available online. This catalogue should be viewed as a work in progress, a...