Wednesday, 11 August 2021

WAS THE TORAH COMPOSED IN THE TIME OF MOSES

Evidence from the Bible indicates
that many Torah laws were written
later than the time of Moses
The late date of the Torah composition


 When did the authors write the Bible? How can we date the Levitical laws in the first five books of the Bible? Were these laws in the Bible written down during the time of Moses? Is there evidence for a later date for the composition of the legal code in the Pentateuch? The time of the writing of the Bible can be determined by comparing history books like Samuel and law books like Leviticus, and this analysis, among others, reveal that the Torah was composed later than the time of the earliest history books in the Bible. If principle characters in the Bible were law breakers, then Moses composed the entire Torah. If these characters did not follow Torah regulations because they were unfamiliar with the rules (the rules being composed later than their time, by Levites) then it becomes obvious that the Torah evolved gradually over time.

The evidence of the contradictory nature of history and doctrine on the pages of the Torah indicates that the documents did not come from a single source. The Bible is found to be edited in a very strange manner, with variant traditions submerged and blended in an attempt to create the impression that the documents did not contain sources, but rather represent a single source. That it was considered imperative that the Torah be considered to have originated from a single source is obvious, for religious and political reasons (the single source being God who told Moses).

We find that the editing technique that is characteristic of the Torah (submerging, hiding, harmonizing, disguising) is also characteristic of the rest of the Bible. The Levite scribes had the most to gain by propagating the myth of divine authorship, and were the final editors of Biblical manuscripts. They did not allow variants to coexist, since this would undermine the divine authority that they wished to impute to the documents, and thus we find in the Bible the most peculiar form of editing. Sources were preserved, indicating that a dynamic was at work that compelled the Levites not to dispose of sources, even when that would have been more convenient. While sources were preserved, they could not be openly displayed, without revealing the true nature of the documents in question, and thus they were 祖hopped up' and edited together and submerged in the finished manuscripts. The fact that the sources were inconsistent and contradictory allows us to make note of both the sources and the strange editing process.

Evidence is abundant both that the laws and regulations did not come from a single source, that history in the Bible is hardly consistent with the theory of a single source, and the evidence also reveals that in the earliest manuscripts little is known of Levitical regulations and the Torah.

For example, in the early works of Samuel, we are told that "David's sons were priests.' (2 Samuel Chapter 8 verse 18) This is only one of many indications that the authors of the Samuel accounts knew nothing of Leviticus, for example. It was a law, formulated later in the self interest of the Levitical temple priests, that only Levites from the tribe of Levi were allowed to be priests (and there is an even narrower interpretation, formulated by one small faction of Levites, that stated that only Levites who were linear descendants of Aaron were allowed to be priests). The author of Samuel knew nothing of such matters, and allowed David's sons, were from the tribe of Judah, and also of 僧ixed origins' (Moabite-Israelite) to serve as priests.

"No Ammonite or Moabite shall enter the assembly of YAHWEH; even to the tenth generation none belonging to them shall enter the assembly of YAHWEH for ever ... You shall not seek their peace or their prosperity all your days for ever." (Deuteronomy Chapter 23 verse 3)

      The regulations then specify that an Egyptian or Edomite could enter the assembly after a few generations. (But Moabites were banned forever.)

"You shall not abhor an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not abhor an Egyptian, because you were a sojourner in his land. The children of the third generation that are born to them may enter the assembly of YAHWEH." (Deuteronomy Chapter 23 verse 7)

      Mixed marriages were banned, and the book of Ezra looks back on the law, and makes a specific point of mentioning that marriages with Moabites were banned. (Ezra Chapter 9 verse 1)

"You must utterly destroy them; you shall make no covenant with them, and show no mercy to them. You shall not make marriages with them, giving your daughters to their sons or taking their daughters for your sons." (Deuteronomy Chapter 7 verse 2)

     David's sons were disbarred from the priesthood both by being from the tribe of Judah, and by being of mixed origins, and were also barred, by Levite regulations, from even participating in the assembly of the people at the Temple, much less being priests, for the reasons of being both of mixed origins, and specifically of Moabite lineage. (Moabites were banned forever, according to Deuteronomy.) By the time that Chronicles was composed (after the return from exile) Levitical regulations were in force, and these sections of the Torah had been composed (accumulating over centuries of Temple practice) and so the Chronicler edited the Samuel account to read that 船avid's sons were high officials in service to the King.' (And not priests, a violation of the later Levitical law code.) (1 Chronicles Chapter 18 verse 17)

      This is not the only example of editing in Chronicles which reveals a knowledge of Torah regulations that was unknown in earlier manuscripts. You might recall that the law forbid despising an Edomite.

"You shall not abhor an Edomite, for he is your brother." (Deuteronomy Chapter 23 verse 7)

      According to 2 Samuel Chapter 8 verse 13 David killed 18,000 Edomites in the valley of Salt and stationed garrisons throughout Edom. Once again this is edited (the Chronicler always portrays David in a positive light, and law breaking is out). According to the edited version in Chronicles, it was Abishai son of Zeruiah who killed those eighteen thousand Edomites in the valley of Salt; and he stationed garrisons throughout Edom. (1 Chronicles Chapter 18 verse 13) A few verses later the Samuel account mentions that David's sons were priests and this is also edited. This reveals the late dating of these particular laws (known to the Chronicler, unknown in David's day, or in the later times even, when the David stories were recorded.) As I mentioned in my commentary on Edomite prophecy, on the page false prophecy in the prophets the Edomites were viciously attacked by a certain school of prophets (faring even worse than Sodom) and this law was introduced into the law code to restrain this hateful conduct.

The earlier historical accounts provide abundant evidence to support the testimony of the prophet Jeremiah who testified that the laws concerning burnt offering and sacrifice were not brought by Moses. He was an honest man, and he was actually present to watch the Levitical system develop and to listen to the claims being made by the temple Levites that their expanding universe of rules and regulations were of 租ivine origin, and came down from God.' He was there, and he is a witness. He also testified that the Levites were forging the laws of God and his testimony is consistent with the evidence that the Bible itself provides.

There is abundant evidence that Levitical regulations were unknown early in the period of the two kingdoms, as recorded particularly in the books of Samuel, the earliest 蘇istorical' manuscripts in the Bible.

For example we know that the judge and prophet Samuel was from the tribe of Ephraim. The lineage of his father was described in the opening passage of the books.

"There was a certain man of Ramathaimzophim of the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elkanah the son of Jeroham, son of Elihu, son of Tohu, son of Zuph, an Ephraimite." (1 Samuel Chapter 1 verse 1)

      Anyone familiar with the Bible in its finished form knows that the rules regarding the priesthood and priestly duties, such as sacrifice or burning incense restricted the practice to only Levites, from the tribe of Levi. If you read the page on the book of Numbers you will also be familiar with the later concept that narrowed the definition of a priest even further, by restricting it only to those Levites who were considered linear descendants of Aaron the Levite. The law code is quite explicit and clear on these matters. As I point out on the page discussing the book of Numbers, the 羨aronite' stand taken in Numbers is rejected in Deuteronomy, and in the following passages all Levites are considered priests. It is their job to do perform the priestly functions.

"And of Levi he said, Give to Levi thy Thummim, and thy Urim to thy godly one. They shall teach Jacob thy ordinances, and Israel thy law; they shall put incense before thee, and whole burnt offering upon thy altar." (Deuteronomy Chapter 33 verse 8)

      The book of Leviticus, closely connected to the Aaronite cult in the Jerusalem temple, defines a priest more narrowly, as an Aaronite, and also describes their duties.

"And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire on the altar, and lay wood in order upon the fire; and Aaron's sons the priests shall lay the pieces, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that is on the fire upon the altar." (Leviticus Chapter 1 verse 7)

      Deuteronomy contains evidence that it is a post temple composition (centralization of worship is emphasized, demonstrating knowledge of the temple system in the constant refrain 奏he place which YAHWEH your God will choose.' The temple, of course.) When the time comes to make the cereal offering you seek out a priest.

"When you come into the land which YAHWEH your God gives you for an inheritance, and have taken possession of it, and live in it ... you shall go to the place which YAHWEH your God will choose, to make his name to dwell there. And you shall go to the priest who is in office at that time. Then the priest shall take the basket from your hand, and set it down before the altar of YAHWEH your God." (Deuteronomy Chapter 26 verse 1)

      The regulations are so strict that any 創on Aaronite' Levite who tried to perform the priestly functions would be put to death (in the Aaronite Numbers source).

"And you (Aaron) and your sons with you shall attend to your priesthood for all that concerns the altar and that is within the veil; and you shall serve. I give your priesthood as a gift, and any one else who comes near shall be put to death." (Numbers Chapter 18 verse 7)

      The reasons for this strictness is then 僧ade clear' by showing just how ferocious God was when priestly regulations and protocol were violated. Interlopers attempted to offer incense, a priestly job.

"And fire came forth from YAHWEH, and consumed the two hundred and fifty men offering the incense ... the censers of these men who have sinned at the cost of their lives; so let them be made into hammered plates as a covering for the altar ... Thus they shall be a sign to the people of Israel. ... to be a reminder to the people of Israel, so that no one who is not a priest, who is not of the descendants of Aaron, should draw near to burn incense before YAHWEH." (Numbers Chapter 16 verse 35)

      Only priests could do the job of priests. Furthermore, the utensils and required instruments were all so holy that the altar, attended to by the priests required constant service to maintain its holiness.

"You shall also anoint the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and consecrate the altar; and the altar shall be most holy." (Exodus Chapter 40 verse 10)

"And every day you shall offer a bull as a sin offering for atonement. Also you shall offer a sin offering for the altar, when you make atonement for it, and shall anoint it, to consecrate it. Seven days you shall make atonement for the altar, and consecrate it, and the altar shall be most holy; whatever touches the altar shall become holy. Now this is what you shall offer upon the altar: two lambs a year old day by day continually. I will consecrate the tent of meeting and the altar; Aaron also and his sons I will consecrate, to serve me as priests." (Exodus Chapter 29 verse 36)

      Because of the constant service the altar required to maintain its holiness, it was necessary that worship be centralized. The manuscript shows an awareness of the fact that this state of affairs was not being observed previous to this time (a polemical reference to the fact that Levite laws were unknown in the times described by the Samuel manuscripts, a point I will demonstrate.)

"But you shall seek the place which YAHWEH your God will choose out of all your tribes to put his name and make his habitation there; thither you shall go, and thither you shall bring your burnt offerings and your sacrifices ... You shall not do according to all that we are doing here this day, every man doing whatever is right in his own eyes." (Deuteronomy Chapter 12 verse 5)

      We know that Samuel was from the tribe of Ephraim. He was not a Levite, and he certainly was not an Aaronite Levite (depending on how strict you want to get about those rules.) Nevertheless he proceeded to build an 爽nholy' altar. Given the divine regulations and the large numbers of animals to sacrificed everyday just to keep that altar holy, one must wonder where Samuel found the cash to keep that altar holy. But then one must wonder what an Ephraimite was doing building an altar in the first place.

"Then he would come back to Ramah, for his home was there, and there also he administered justice to Israel. And he built there an altar to YAHWEH." (1 Samuel Chapter 7 verse 17)

      And of course, what is an altar without sacrifices being offered on it? Samuel did not restrict himself to sacrificing on his personal altar in Ramah, but he also sacrificed at the High Places in Gilgal.

"And you shall go down before me to Gilgal; and behold, I (Samuel) am coming to you to offer burnt offerings and to sacrifice peace offerings. Seven days you shall wait, until I come to you and show you what you shall do. When he had finished prophesying, he came to the high place." (1 Samuel Chapter 10 verse 8)

      Now, just in case someone might try employing some of those torturing of Bible verses (called apologetics) and try to suggest perhaps that Samuel was merely sinning against God, perhaps, it is worthy of note that Samuel is portrayed as knowing God personally and in very good favor with God, in spite of all his 鼠aw breaking ways'

"And Samuel grew, and YAHWEH was with him and let none of his words fall to the ground. And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew that Samuel was established as a prophet of YAHWEH. And YAHWEH appeared again at Shiloh, for YAHWEH revealed himself to Samuel at Shiloh by the word of YAHWEH." (1 Samuel Chapter 3 verse 19)

      So you can see that God was with Samuel, the Ephraimite, and the fact that he had a personal altar, or that he went up to the high places to sacrifice made no difference.

"So Samuel (the Ephraimite) took a sucking lamb and offered it as a whole burnt offering to YAHWEH; and Samuel cried to YAHWEH for Israel, and YAHWEH answered him. (Not a problem.) As Samuel (the Ephraimite, who was not put to death) was offering up the burnt offering, the Philistines drew near to attack Israel; but YAHWEH thundered with a mighty voice that day against the Philistines and threw them into confusion; and they were routed before Israel. So the Philistines were subdued and did not again enter the territory of Israel. And the hand of YAHWEH was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel." (1 Samuel Chapter 7 verse 9)

      Samuel's 鼠aw breaking' included going up to the high places to sacrifice.

"Samuel answered Saul, "I am the seer; go up before me to the high place, for today you shall eat with me, and in the morning I will let you go and will tell you all that is on your mind." (1 Samuel Chapter 9 verse 19)

"They answered, "He is; behold, he is just ahead of you. Make haste; he has come just now to the city, because the people have a sacrifice today on the high place. As soon as you enter the city, you will find him, before he goes up to the high place to eat; for the people will not eat till he comes, since he (Samuel, the Ephraimite) must bless the sacrifice; afterward those eat who are invited. Now go up, for you will meet him immediately." So they went up to the city. As they were entering the city, they saw Samuel coming out toward them on his way up to the high place." (1 Samuel Chapter 9 verse 12)

      Needless to say Samuel's conduct was condemned by the priests later in the Torah (who did not want any religion that was not strictly under their control, as you can tell by reading their propaganda.)

"And I will destroy your high places, and cut down your incense altars, and cast your dead bodies upon the dead bodies of your idols; and my soul will abhor you. And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute vengeance for the covenant; and if you gather within your cities I will send pestilence among you, and you shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy. And if in spite of this you will not hearken to me, but walk contrary to me, then I will walk contrary to you in fury, and chastise you myself sevenfold for your sins. You shall eat the flesh of your sons, and you shall eat the flesh of your daughters. And I will destroy your high places, and cut down your incense altars, and cast your dead bodies upon the dead bodies of your idols; and my soul will abhor you. And I will lay your cities waste, and will make your sanctuaries desolate, and I will not smell your pleasing odors. And I will devastate the land, so that your enemies who settle in it shall be astonished at it." (Leviticus Chapter 26 verse 30)

      Samuel (the Ephraimite) also practiced the priestly rites of consecration.

"And he said, "Peaceably; I have come to sacrifice to YAHWEH; consecrate yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice." And he consecrated Jesse and his sons, and invited them to the sacrifice." (1 Samuel Chapter 16 verse 5)

      Now it turns out that Samuel, the Ephraimite, was not the only one offering sacrifices. Everyone was offering sacrifices. All the people offered sacrifices.

"So all the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king before YAHWEH in Gilgal. There they sacrificed peace offerings before YAHWEH, and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly." (1 Samuel Chapter 11 verse 15)

      David's family of course sacrificed as well, every year.

"If your father misses me at all, then say, 船avid earnestly asked leave of me to run to Bethlehem his city; for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.'" (1 Samuel Chapter 20 verse 6)

"He (David, the half Moabite Judean) said, 銑et me go; for our family holds a sacrifice in the city, and my brother has commanded me to be there. So now, if I have found favor in your eyes, let me get away, and see my brothers.' For this reason he has not come to the king's table." (1 Samuel Chapter 20 verse 29)

      Of course, with every Tom, Dick and Harry sacrificing, David (the Moabite Judean) also sacrificed. He also wore the priestly ephod.

"And it was told King David, "YAHWEH has blessed the household of Obededom and all that belongs to him, because of the ark of God." So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obededom to the city of David with rejoicing; and when those who bore the ark of YAHWEH had gone six paces, he (David) sacrificed an ox and a fatling. And David danced before YAHWEH with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod." (2 Samuel Chapter 6 verse 12)

      And Absalom sacrificed (and why not. Everybody else did.)

"And while Absalom was offering the sacrifices, he sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, David's counselor, from his city Giloh." (2 Samuel Chapter 15 verse 12)

      King Solomon sacrificed. He also burned incense, which, if you remember the priestly polemic described above, was a good way to get burned yourself.

"Three times a year Solomon used to offer up burnt offerings and peace offerings upon the altar which he built to YAHWEH, burning incense before YAHWEH. So he finished the house." (1 Kings Chapter 9 verse 25)

      Of course with everybody sacrificing, wearing ephods, and consecrating people, well, those Levites in the Jerusalem temple were not going to stand for that for very long. (Keep in mind that the reference to 奏he Tent of Meeting' supposedly built by Moses was a polemical reference to the both the Temple and the Levites there, and also a reference to that myth of divine origins of the Torah.)

"If any man of the house of Israel kills an ox or a lamb or a goat in the camp, or kills it outside the camp, and does not bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, to offer it as a gift to YAHWEH before the tabernacle of YAHWEH, bloodguilt shall be imputed to that man; he has shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people. This is to the end that the people of Israel may bring their sacrifices which they slay in the open field, that they may bring them to YAHWEH, to the priest at the door of the tent of meeting, and slay them as sacrifices of peace offerings to YAHWEH; and the priest shall sprinkle the blood on the altar of YAHWEH at the door of the tent of meeting, and burn the fat for a pleasing odor to YAHWEH. So they shall no more slay their sacrifices for satyrs, after whom they play the harlot. This shall be a statute for ever to them throughout their generations. And you shall say to them, Any man of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, who offers a burnt offering or sacrifice, and does not bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, to sacrifice it to YAHWEH; that man shall be cut off from his people." (Leviticus Chapter 17 verse 3)

      The Levite regulations were not immune to the intrusion of political polemic and political propaganda. We can see varying portraits of King David in the historical accounts (which are not actually 蘇istory' but rather political polemic, accounting for the inconsistencies and contradictions found in the manuscripts. See the page on the Bible as history for one such example of anit- Davidic propaganda.) These politically motivated controversies can then be found reflected in sections of the Torah regulations, that both introduce conflicts into the Torah itself and reveal a political agenda at work that corresponds to the political agenda revealed in an analysis of the propaganda presented as history. The reasons for these controversies are found when you consider that David was of mixed origins, coming from Moabite descent. There were elements in this ancient society who were hostile to the fact that 疎 Moabite half breed' was sitting on the throne of Judah, and that a dynasty of 閃oabite half breeds' then ruled over Judah for centuries.

      Evidence for both support for David's cause and the hostility against a Moabite on the throne would bring out in people is found on the pages of the Bible. For example, the book of Ruth is the story of David's grandmother, and most likely was a pro-Davidic monarchy political composition. Ruth was a Moabite. She was (supposedly) banned by the Torah regulations forever, for this very reason. No one was to be concerned for her welfare, forever. No one descended from her would be allowed into 奏he assembly' forever, and certainly not allowed as a priest (as David's sons were), and, it goes without saying, certainly not allowed to sit on the throne or establish a dynasty in Judah. Boaz, a Jewish man, obviously violated this law in Deuteronomy, and is presented as showing constant concern for the welfare of Ruth. Boaz was presented as a righteous man, and Ruth was presented as the epitome of a righteous woman. The laws banning both their marriage and the ban on Moabites in particular were later politically motivated compositions and their target was the Davidic monarchy.

      That such zealous bigots could be found in Israel and Judah at the time, is best evidenced when you compare the story line in the book of Ruth, with the rabid racism of Ezra-Nehemiah. One of the principle themes of these two manuscripts is the crackdown on mixed marriages, like that of David's grandfather and grandmother. In these manuscripts the people had not separated from 奏he natives'. The 蘇oly race' had been intermarrying with the banned, 爽nholy races,' including, as you can see, the unclean, unholy race of Moabites. This is political diatribe and just as the book of Ruth is pro-Davidic political composition, these conflicting racist compositions reflect the anti-Davidic political movement, and encapsulate the view point of certain passages we find in the Torah (which were themselves anti-Davidic political compositions).

"No Ammonite or Moabite shall enter the assembly of YAHWEH; even to the tenth generation none belonging to them shall enter the assembly of YAHWEH for ever ... You shall not seek their peace or their prosperity all your days for ever." (Deuteronomy Chapter 23 verse 3)

      These regulations are explicitly referenced again and again in the manuscripts, and the political position stated that to allow this 素oreign intermarriage' (or to allow 蘇alf breeds Moabites' to rule as a dynasty over Judah) brings social and political disaster to the nation. There is an explicit reference to the ban on being concerned for Moabites found in Deuteronomy quoted above (and this is once again a thinly disguised referent to the 蘇alf breed Moabite' David dynasty. The highest officials are presented as the ones most guilty of the offence, another indication of the political nature of the polemic. Keep in mind that the entire book of Deuteronomy takes place in Moab, and that the Moabites were friendly with the Israelites, indicating that the anti-Moab polemic in Deuteronomy is a later addition. The italics are mine.)

"Therefore give not your daughters to their sons, neither take their daughters for your sons, and never seek their peace or prosperity, that you may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever.'" (Ezra Chapter 9 verse 12)

"Therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all these wives and their children, according to the counsel of my lord and of those who tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law." (Ezra Chapter 10 verse 3)

"After these things had been done, the officials approached me and said, "The people of Israel and the priests and the Levites have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands with their abominations, from the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites. For they have taken some of their daughters to be wives for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy race has mixed itself with the peoples of the lands. And in this faithlessness the hand of the officials and chief men has been foremost." When I heard this, I rent my garments and my mantle, and pulled hair from my head and beard, and sat appalled. Then all who trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of the returned exiles, gathered round me while I sat appalled until the evening sacrifice. And at the evening sacrifice I rose from my fasting, with my garments and my mantle rent, and fell upon my knees and spread out my hands to YAHWEH my God, saying: "O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift my face to thee, my God, for our iniquities have risen higher than our heads, and our guilt has mounted up to the heavens." (Ezra Chapter 9 verse 1)

      The political polemic continues, and emphasis is placed on both the 壮in' of mixed marriage, and the need to separate (a veiled reference to the need to rid the nation of the 蘇alf breed Moabite dynasty of David) in order to 疎vert the fierce wrath of God' kindled by this matter. (This is all, of course, just one more Biblical contradiction, as you can tell by reading Ruth and then reading these racist, politically motivated polemics in Ezra-Nehemiah. The story is political polemic.)

"And Ezra the priest stood up and said to them, "You have trespassed and married foreign women, and so increased the guilt of Israel. Now then make confession to YAHWEH the God of your fathers, and do his will; separate yourselves from the peoples of the land and from the foreign wives." Then all the assembly answered with a loud voice, "It is so; we must do as you have said ... till the fierce wrath of our God over this matter be averted from us." (Ezra Chapter 10 verse 10)

      The political polemic is also carried on in the book of Nehemiah.

"And the Israelites separated themselves from all foreigners, and stood and confessed their sins and the iniquities of their fathers. And they stood up in their place and read from the book of the law of YAHWEH their God for a fourth of the day; for another fourth of it they made confession and worshiped YAHWEH their God." (Nehemiah Chapter 9 verse 2)

      As the polemic builds towards its conclusion (another condemnation of 蘇alf breeds'), all of it couched in praise for Torah regulations, a reference is made to 疎ppointing a leader to take them back into bondage to Egypt' (David, 奏he half breed Moabite' is the target of these polemics). It was only because 賎od was merciful' that the nation did not come to immediate disaster (a polemical excuse).

"But they and our fathers acted presumptuously and stiffened their neck and did not obey thy commandments; they refused to obey, and were not mindful of the wonders which thou didst perform among them; but they stiffened their neck and appointed a leader to return to their bondage in Egypt. But thou art a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and didst not forsake them." (Nehemiah Chapter 9 verse 16)

      This is followed by many racist remarks about 奏he natives of the land' and then a reference to 奏reating them any way you like' is found. (These passages in Ezra and Nehemiah are some of the ugliest scriptures in the Bible, extolling and celebrating the most arrogant form of racism, extermination, genocide, plundering and robbery, and the Holy War ideology of the Levites.)

"So the descendants went in and possessed the land, and thou didst subdue before them the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, and didst give them into their hands, with their kings and the peoples of the land, that they might do with them as they would." (Nehemiah Chapter 9 verse 24)

      One of the differences between the Nehemiah and the Ezra manuscripts is that in Nehemiah the attack on David is muted, by including a positive reference to Solomon, David's son. This is evidence for later editorial redaction in the manuscript, recognizable, as is always the case, by the bizarre inconsistencies in doctrine that such intrusions always bring with them. In context, the reference is somewhat idiotic, for Solomon himself was one of those unwanted 蘇alf breeds' and the product of an Israelite-Moabite union, condemned just verses previous to this, as being a cause of great evil and conduct worthy of a really good beating. After praising the half breed Solomon, Nehemiah then attacks the son-in-law of a Horonite, which is equally downright idiotic in the context of the passage, indicating that the later editor of Nehemiah understood the anti-Davidic nature of the polemic in Ezra-Nehemiah and was trying to mute the critique and shift the focus to condemning racial mixing in general. As I said, the passage is dimwitted, but then only a dimwit could hold to such an offensive and repulsive ideology, so that isn't surprising to me. He then claims to have 叢urged them of everything foreign', well, everything except the influence of that half breed Davidic monarchy. But you do have to make some exceptions, even when it comes to the previously vaunted 銑aw of Moses,' and sometimes show partiality and favoritism to the right half breed family, of course, right?

"In those days also I saw the Jews who had married women of Ashdod, Ammon, and Moab; And I contended with them and cursed them and beat some of them and pulled out their hair; and I made them take oath in the name of God, saying, "You shall not give your daughters to their sons, or take their daughters for your sons or for yourselves. Did not Solomon king of Israel sin on account of such women? Among the many nations there was no king like him, and he was beloved by his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless foreign women made even him to sin. Shall we then listen to you and do all this great evil and act treacherously against our God by marrying foreign women?" And one of the sons of Jehoiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, was the son-in-law of Sanballat the Horonite; therefore I chased him from me. Remember them, O my God, because they have defiled the priesthood and the covenant of the priesthood and the Levites. Thus I cleansed them from everything foreign." (Nehemiah Chapter 13 verse 23)

      The Torah can be examined in many ways, as history, as consistent law, by considering the testimony of the radical stream of Jewish prophecy, prophets, remember, who lived in the times they describe and were the ones who knew the truth about what was going on, and, in this case, by examining the date of the Torah composition. Taken together, all this evidence is overwhelming that the Torah did not come down from heaven from God to Moses on the mountaintop, but rather that it represents the interests of the Jerusalem Temple Levites. Its Holy War ideology, was their ideology, its ideology of sacrifice created in their self interest.

Unreliable Biblical history

Historical contradictions in the Bible


Biblical manuscripts are notoriously unreliable when it comes to historical fact, and these disagreements and contradictions appear not only between various works, but, in an even more bizarre fashion within individual books. Saul reigned over Israel for two years, according to 1 Samuel 13:1. This figure seems improbably low so the two in the Hebrew text is usually changed to read 'twenty - two' in translation. However Saul reigned for forty years, if you believe what is written in the book of Acts 13:21. The Book of Samuel places Rachel's tomb in Benjamin at Zelzah in the north (1 Samuel 10:2) , as does Jeremiah 31:15Genesis 35:19 and Matthew 2:16 place the tomb in Bethlehem, further south. Three sons were born to Absalom, we are told in 2 Samuel 14:27. However, a few chapters ahead Absalom said, 'I have no sons to carry on my name.' (2 Samuel 18:18) In a similar passage, we are informed that to her dying day, Michal, daughter of Saul was childless, for she mocked David for dancing in his underwear. (2 Samuel 6:23) However a few chapters later we are introduced to ‘the five sons of Michal.' (2 Samuel 21:8) Translators have usually changed the word 'Michal' in the Hebrew text to read 'Merob' in order to help clear this matter up.

      Saul committed suicide in the 31st chapter of 1 Samuel. Saul's armor bearer refused to run him through with the sword, so Saul took his own sword and fell on it. Then his armor bearer fell on his own sword and died with him (1 Samuel 31:4). In the first chapter of 2nd Samuel Saul fell on his sword but he did not die. In this version a young Amalekite put him out of his misery by striking a death blow.

      We are informed that Ishosheth the Hachomite was chief of the three of David's great heroes. (2 Samuel 23:8) The Chronicler disagrees stating that it was Jashobeam the Hachomite who was the chief of the three of David's great heroes. (1 Chronicles 11:11) The 23rd chapter of 2nd Samuel then goes on to list the thirty great heroes of David, and this passage is the subject of much confusion. There are more than thirty. Thus a correction is inserted, "there were thirty - seven in all" (2 Samuel 23:38) but the actual number of names mentioned is thirty - six.

      'Chemosh' was not the god of the Ammonites as stated in Judges 11:24. Chemosh was the god of the Moabites. (Numbers 21:29, 1 Kings 11:7, 2 Kings 23:13) A contradictory theological reference to Chemosh is found in 1 Kings 3:27. It was standard theology to state there is one God, but in this passage Chemosh is also a god. The King of Moab offered a child as a whole offerings sacrifice to Chemosh, and the god responded by 'stirring up his wrath against Israel so they gave up the battle.' The Moabites are also painted in different colors, depending on the source. David (who was the grandson of a Moabite) had very friendly relations with the Moabites and even sent his father and mother to live with the King of Moab. (2 Samuel 22:3) According to Deuteronomy, David should never have been allowed into the assembly of Israel, much less reign as king, since no Moabite must ever be accepted forever. (Deuteronomy 23:3) David was in even more hot water, for the laws stated that no one who was a product of a mixed marriage with a non_Israelite could ever be accepted. (Exodus 34:11-16, Deuteronomy 7:1-5) You can compare the acceptance of Ruth , David's grandmother, and a Moabite, and the acceptance of David, a Moabite, as King, with the furious raging against mixed marriages in Ezra and Nehemiah. For reasons of political propaganda it would seem that an alternate tradition was invented to show that David really hated Moabites. David conquered Moab and then did some ethnic cleansing, forcing the Moabites to lie on the ground to be measured off for slaughter. (2 Samuel 8:2)

      While Ezra and Nehemiah share in common a loathing for foreigners, the two books come from two different sources. Compare Ezra 2:1-64 and Nehemiah 7:7-66. The differences in these genealogical lists suggest conflicting source materials, although we are given to believe that they describe the same time period and events. Ezra 2:64 gives the total of the list as '42,360' but the actual total is 29,818. The total in Nehemiah comes closer to that of Ezra with different details (31,089). Compare amount of gold and garments in Ezra 2:69 and Nehemiah 7:70. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah were not written by these men. Nehemiah lists the descendants of Joshua the High Priest down to six generations, suggesting that the manuscript was composed close to the time of Alexander the Great.

      We are told that Ishbosheth was 40 years old when he reigned over Israel and he reigned two years. (2 Samuel 2:10) This could not be the case for he did not fight at Gilboa because he was to young. David ordered that those who stayed with the baggage were to receive an equal share of the spoils of war with those who went out to battle, and from that time onward he made it a law over Israel as it remained up to the writers time. (1 Samuel 30:25) David was not yet King over Judah, not to mention Israel, and in no position to make a law over Israel. As well, the phrase "as it is to this day" shows that the manuscript was compiled at a later date from earlier (and, as we are seeing, conflicting) source materials.

      Now in the law it states that the Israelites must not despise an Edomite, for they were blood brothers. (Deuteronomy 23:7) It would seem that David was a law breaker. David made a great name for himself by the slaughter of eighteen thousand Edomites in the valley of Salt and he stationed garrisons throughout Edom. (2 Samuel 8:13) Or, then again, it was Abishai son of Zeruiah who killed those eighteen thousand Edomites in the valley of Salt; and he stationed garrisons throughout Edom. (1 Chronicles 18:13) However, before we condemn David as a law breaker, we should keep in mind that the Levitical law was unknown in David's day, and unknown in the day of whoever wrote the Samuel accounts, but it was known to the chronicler, since Chronicles is a late work. We are told that David's sons were priests. (2 Samuel 8:18) This indicates that the Levitical laws were unknown in their present form at that time, for David was from the tribe of Judah and the Levitical regulations only allowed levites from the tribe of Levi to serve as priests, and anyone else who approached would be put to death. Thus, the chronicler edits this reference to David (1 Chronicles 18:17) by stating that David's sons were ‘high officials in service to the king' (rather than priests, which, along with David's massacres of Edomites, would have placed David in serious violation of the law code - it was Abishai).


THE CONTRADICTORY BOOK OF JOSHUA



Contradictory history on the pages of the Bible


The book of Joshua in the Bible presents several internally inconsistent scenarios which describe the entry of Israel into Canaan, and it also conflicts with Judges and other books of the Bible. The example of the books of Joshua and Judges can be used to illustrate that multiple versions of events are given in the Bible. Any interested readercould compare the account contained in the book of Joshua with that related inthe book of Judges. This sort of 'research' is not hard to do. Take aconcordance (a type of dictionary of the Bible listing the passages where agiven word occurs). Look up each word and compare passages.

     The book of Joshua portrays the conquest of Canaan as a single event thattook place in one campaign divided into a number of stages. The end result wasthat the inhabitants of the land were all slaughtered.

"He left not a single survivor" (Joshua 11:8) and, "the land was now at peace," (Joshua 14:15) for, "the country now lay subdued at their feet." (Joshua 18:1)

A survey team was thensent out and reported back to Joshua who then decided how to divide up the land. Lots were then cast for each portion by representatives of the tribes. (It turns out that the lot casting is the major problem with the book as it presupposes a unitary conquest, victory, peace, and possession of the land, as described above.) The bookconcludes with a great meeting a Shechem, which functions as a summaryconclusion to everything that took place and a call to follow God faithfully,just as God faithfully fulfilled a promise to hand over the Canaanite lands tothe people (the references to fulfilled prophecy in the book come in large partfrom the book of Deuteronomy). Joshua died and was buried.

      If you were to continue to read on into the book of Judges the first thing you would notice is that a break in the continuity of the narrative takes place. The first line of Judges reads:

"After the death of Joshuathe Israelites enquired of YAHWEH, 'which tribe should be the first to attackthe Canaanites?'" (Judges 1:1)

     Notice the language used ('first to attack the Canaanites'). The premise here is that no war of conquest took place in Joshua's time, and theIsraelites then proceed to a series of battles, all of which the book of Joshuarelates as taking place in his lifetime.

      Now here is a really interesting example of a compounding series of contradictions. The book of Joshua tells us that he conquered Jerusalem (Joshua 12:10). The land was

"assigned to the Israelites." (Joshua 12:7)

The bookcontains internal inconsistencies for we are also told that,

"the men of Judah failed to drive out the Jebusites living in Jerusalem." (Joshua 15:63)

The passage is repeated again in (Judges 1:21) , with the difference that this time itis the Benjamites who failed in the conquest. You can compare this with theaccount in the 11th chapter of Joshua , where we are told that Jebusites wereamong a listing of other peoples whom Joshua,

"cut down until they had not asingle survivor." (Joshua 11:8) "Their cities were destroyed," (Joshua 11:12)
and the peopleliving there were
"put to the sword, destroying them all".
The Israelites then
"plundered the cities," (Joshua 11:14)
leaving alive only the animals, but
"everyliving soul they put to the sword until they had destroyed everyone. They didnot leave anyone alive." (Joshua 11:14) "Jericho fought against you, as did theJebusites, but I delivered them into your hands. I drove them out before you." (Joshua 24:11)

      With the Israelites firmly in control of Jerusalem and the Jebusites wiped out, centuries later David could freely take

"Goliath's head to Jerusalem." (1 Samuel 17:54)

The only problem with this scenario is that it turns out that thegreat Israeli hero who had the honor of conquering Jerusalem and the Jebusiteswas David himself, after he had grown up and become King.

"David went toJerusalem to attack the Jebusites." (2 Samuel 5:6)

Now, depending on whichversion of events you (arbitrarily?) declare to be 'historical' either Joshuahad already wiped out those Jebusites,

'leaving no one alive' (Joshua 11:14)
or,immediately after his death,
"the men of Judah made an assault on Jerusalem andcaptured it; they put its people (the Jebusites) to the sword, and set fire tothe city." (Judges 1:8)

Or, then again,

"the men of Judah failed to drive outthe Jebusites living in Jerusalem." (Joshua 15:63)

Or, then again, maybe theBenjamites attacked and failed. (Judges 1:21)

"The children of Israel dweltamong the Jebusites." (Judges 3:5)

      In David's day, the Jebusites, were apparently alive and well enough to mock him, saying,

"you'll never get in here! Even the blind and the lame could keepyou out!" (2 Samuel 5:6)

David did take the city, by sneaking under the wallsvia the water conduit to the center of town. The only problem with thisscenario is that it was King Hezekiah who constructed the water conduit,centuries after David's death. (2 Kings 20:20) I just bring all this to yourattention to point out the mind numbing complications, the compoundingcontradictions that begin to develop once you start pulling on some of theseBiblical threads by looking up a word in a concordance. It is not a matter ofpulling out a loose thread here or there, rather the whole garment unravels.

      The bizarre 'editorial work' needs explanation. This certainly isn't 'history' but something else altogether, an important fact to keep in mind. In the caseof Jerusalem let us just say that multiple traditions existed and who would notwant to claim that it was their particular hero who took the city, even if itinvolved spinning some fanciful tall tales?

      Also of interest are the compounding contradictions that surface if one looks up a word, like, say, "Ammonite," or, "Moabite." In the book of Joshua weread that,

"Moses allotted to the Gadites half of the country of the Ammonitesas far as Aroer, which is east of Rabbah." (Joshua 13:24) "Moses allotted to thetribe of Mannessah as their holding the lowlands of Moab east of the Jordan." (Joshua 13:31)

We find that after all this assignment of territory, that thebattles were finished, and,

"the land was now a peace." (Joshua 14:15)

In thebook of Deuteronomy, we find that Moses said,

"when you reach the territory ofthe Ammonites you must not harass them or provoke them to battle for I will notgive you any Ammonite land as a possession." (Deuteronomy 2:19) "You avoided theterritory of the Ammonites, thus fulfilling all that YAHWEH God hadcommanded." (Deuteronomy 2:37) "Do not harass Moab or contend with them in battle, for I will not give you any of their land for a possession." (Deuteronomy 2:9)

So either Moses parceled out the territory of theAmmonites and Moabites or he did not.

      Continue pulling on this thread and other books startto unravel as well. In the 11th Chapter of Judges, Jephthah quarreled overland with the Ammonites. The Ammonites said,

"when the Israelites came up outof Egypt, they seized our land all the way from Arnon to the Jabbok and theJordan. Now return these lands peacefully." (Judges 11:13)

Jephthah replied,

"Israel took neither Moabite or Ammonite land. They sent envoys to the King ofEdom asking him to grant them passage through his country but he would notconsent. The king of Moab would also not agree, so Israel journeyed through thewilderness and skirted the territories of Edom and Moab." (Judges 11:15)

Yankon this thread and another rip appears in another book. Moses is portrayed asspeaking in Deuteronomy, and directly contradicts Jephthah.

"Edom granted uspassage, and so did the Moabites in Ar." (Deuteronomy 2:29)

As well the Book of Joshuatells us that Moses assigned both the land of the Ammonites and the Moabites tothe tribes, and that this land was parceled out by Joshua after the conquestwas complete. Jephthah then concludes,

"for three hundred years we have beenliving in Heshbon, Aroer, and Arnon. Why did you not retake them in all thattime?" (Judges 11:26)

This seems to be a retroactive admission that Israel didin fact take Ammonite land, as described in Joshua. Jephthah then attacked theAmmonites, making

'a great slaughter'. "Thus Ammon was conquered by Israel." (Judges 11:32)

(As YAHWEH had commanded Moses, and Joshua fulfilled, nodoubt, or then again, as Deuteronomy insists, maybe not.)

      If we continue with account of what took place after Joshua died, as it is given in Judges, we find that after taking Jerusalem, Judah conquered the Negeb,the Shephelah, Hebron, Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, and Debir. Of course, itturns out that the Negev, the Shephalah, Hebron, and Debir were all attacked byJoshua during his lifetime. (Joshua 10:36-40) In Hebron,

"he left no survivor,destroying every living thing in it." (Joshua 10:37)

An identical passage is used todescribe the fate of Debir at Joshua's hand. (Joshua 10:39) As for the Negeb and theShephalah, Joshua,

"left no survivor. destroying everything that drew breath, asYAHWEH the God of Israel had commanded." (Joshua 10:40)

That all these places andpeople indeed survive to battle Judah after Joshua's death is surely the firstexample of so many others in the Bible of a mass raising from the dead.

      Now as for Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, it turns out that Caleb accomplished this feat (Joshua 15:13) and in another of the internalinconsistencies in the book of Joshua it turns out that it was also Caleb whoconquered Debir. (Joshua 15:15)

      The pattern continues to the end of the book of Joshua. In Judges we are told that after Joshua's death, Judah attacked Zephath (formerly called Hormah).(Judges 1:17 -compare Joshua 12:14 ) They then took Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron. (Judges 1:18) According to (Joshua 10:40) , Joshua took Gaza, killing their Kingat the same time as the countries mentioned in the previous paragraph, in asingle sweeping campaign culminating in complete military victory, and, at therisk of becoming redundant, I point out that,

"he left not a single survivor,destroying everything that drew breath." (Joshua 10:40)

Here we have another of thoseinteresting internal inconsistencies in the book of Joshua. In chapter 13 ofthe book, Joshua had become 'a very old man' and yet,

"much of the countryremains to be occupied." (Joshua 13:1)

Among these areas are, wouldn't you just knowit, "Gaza and Ekron." (Joshua 13:3) In Judges we are told that Joseph attacked Bethel( (Judges 1:22) - compare Joshua 12:16 where once again Joshua gets the credit.

      Mannessah, the book of Judges states, failed in their conquest of Taanach ( Judges 1:27 - Joshua 17:11, they failed; Joshua 12:21, Joshua succeeded in takingTaanach); Dor (Joshua 12:23, Joshua took Dor); Ibleam (Joshua 12:23, he took theplace; Joshua 17:11, they failed); and Megiddo (ditto). So in these cases thefamiliar conflict is found between the Judges and Joshua account, and the Joshuaaccount is also internally inconsistent. Ephraim failed to take Gezer (Judges 1:29-compare Joshua 12:10 and Joshua 10:33. Joshua took the place leaving 'nosurvivors. He killed every living thing.' Then again, maybe not, for (Joshua 16:10) they failed to take the place.) Naphtali failed to take Beth-shemesh (Judges 1:33) or then again compare Joshua 19:22 and 19:38. The Amorites forcedthe Danites into the hill country, and would not allow them to come down ontothe fertile plains. (Judges 1:34) This must be another example of amass raising from the dead. You see the Amoriteswere beaten by Joshua in another grand, sweeping campaign (chapter 10), and asit states in chapter 11, the Amorites were destroyed, and so were their citiesand the people there. They were,

"put to the sword, destroying them all." (Joshua 11:12)
All their cities were 'plundered'. (Joshua 11:14)
"They destroyed everyone. They did not leave anyone alive." (Joshua 11:14) "Joshua conquered the Hittites, theAmorites, the Canaanites, the Perrizites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites." (Joshua 12:7) "Jericho fought against you, as did the Amorites, the Perrizites, theCanaanites, the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, but Idelivered them into your hands. They were driven out from before you." (Joshua 24:11)

Or, maybe not, for

"they did not drive out the Jebusites." (Judges 1:21) "Thechildren of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, thePerrizites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites." (Judges 3:5)

      The Kingdom described in Joshua corresponds closely to that of the united Kingdom under Solomon. In the book of Judges the scenario is different. Thereis no singular and triumphant campaign of military conquest. The Israelitesare confined to the less inhabited (and easily conquered) unfertile mountainranges, with the Canaanites maintaining a firm grip on the fertile plains,

"because they had iron chariots." (Judges 1:19)

Thus we are presented with a different picture of God, a god who is easily foiled in conquest and war by those iron chariots. Conquest of the land issomething that is going to take centuries to accomplish, with the justificationgiven for this state of affairs, that God was testing the people by leaving theCanaanites in possession of the land.

"The purpose of the test was to seewhether or not the Israelites would obey God's commandments."
(Judges 3:4)

Thusthe Israelites were confined to the mountain ranges while the fertile plains aredescribed as remaining in the hands of all those people Joshua had supposedlywiped out, 'leaving not a single survivor'. Included on the list of 'survivors' are,

"the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and (of course) the Jebusites." (Judges 3:5)

Even more problem surface when we consider the prophecy credited to Joshua.
"The sons of Joseph said, "The hill country is not enough for us, and all the Canaanites who live in the valley land have chariots of iron."" (Joshua 17:16)
Joshua replied,
"you shall drive out the Canaanites, even though they have chariots of iron and though they are strong." (Joshua 17:18)
In the book of Judges we are told that they could not defeat those iron chariots, and indeed, as you read along into the fourth chapter you find that the Israelites were being cruelly oppressed for decades by an enemy who were are told had 900 iron chariots. As has been demonstrated the book of Joshua is itself contradictory and it certainly conflicts with the book of Judges in this case. In Deuteronomy a regulation states that if a prophet makes a prophecy that does not come true, the person who spoke was obviously not a prophet. 'Do not be afraid of him.' So in this case we have the book of Joshua, the book of massacres and genocide, whose lead character was by the standards of Deuteronomy, a false prophet.

      There is also another excuse given for why the people could not conquer the land.

"'I will not drive out one individual of all those nations Joshua leftalive at his death. Through them I will test Israel, to see whether or not theykeep strictly to the way of God.' So God made no haste to drive themout or give them into Joshua's hands."
(Hmmmm. Imagine that, hey?)
"As a meansof testing all the Israelites who had not taken part in any battles for Canaan,God left all these nations. God's purpose was to train future generations ofIsraelites in the art of warfare, that is all those who had not learnt it before." (Judges 2:21)

That was darned thoughtful of God, you must agree. How justlike God, right? Always thinking ahead.

      However, God, it would seem, had second thoughts. A few chapters ahead we find that God told Gideon that there would be no training of future generationsof Israelites in the art of war, because,

"Israel might claim the glory forthemselves and say that their own strength has given them the victory."
(Judges 7:2) "Send the army home." (Judges 7:7)

It should be obvious that what you arereading here is not 'history', but rather a sort of 'theology'. The statement,"God's purpose was train them for war," is a theological statement. One cannotbring oneself to say, "the god of the Canaanites is winning more wars than ourgod." In those days one measured the strength of 'gods' in contests of militarycombat, with the symbolism driven home when the victorious party would take theimages of 'the gods' of the losing party into captivity, often setting them upin subordinate positions in their own temples. Seen in this light the book ofJoshua can be seen for what it really is-a political and religious document,dressed up as history.



Where are the Native American nations today. The answer is that they are buried under corn fields and in any other location where corpses can be disposed of inmass graves. This genocidal massacre was admired by Hitler who modeled the Waffen SS after the Texas Rangers, and whose mission also became the genocidaldispossession of conquered lands. In order to understand this period in American history it is also important to understand American religion and the American holybook the Bible, and for that reason I thought I would present this collection of verses so as to educate those who might not be fully aware of just what it was that ourancestors had been venerating and worshipping for all those centuries.

Nehemiah 13:1 ""As soon as they heard the law of the lord they expelled all people offoreign descent."

"When the lord your godhas led you into the land you are entering to make your own, nations will fall before you. You mustlay them under solemn ban and show them no pity." "The lord your god has given you this land asyour own. All your fighting men must take up arms and march." Deut. 3:18 "You must drive all thenatives of the land before you. If you do not drive the natives of the country before you then thosewho remain will become disgusting to your eyes and a thorn in your side. They will harass you in theland where you live, and I will deal with you as I meant to deal with them." Num. 33:51 "Devour thenations the lord your god delivers over to you. Show them no pity." Deut. 7:16 But you are apeople most holy to your god, so, "Do not clip your hair at the temple or trim your beard," (Lev.19:27) and, "no tatoos." Lev. 19:28

"The people have not broken with the natives. The holy race has been minglingwith the natives of the country. In this act of treachery the chief men and the officials have beenleading the way. My god, I am ashamed." Ezra 9:1

"The land you are invading is foul because of the filthinessof the natives. Their land is filled with filth from end to end because of the foulness of the natives. So you must not marry them or be concerned with their prosperity, so that yourselves may growstrong and eat the best of what the country produces yourself, and leave it as an inheritance to yoursons forever.'" Ezra 9:10

"You must not marry them or give a daughter or son of yours tothem in marriage, for the anger of the lord your god would then blaze out against you, and quicklydestroy you. It is you the lord your god has chosen to be his very own people out of all these otherpeoples of the earth." Deut. 6 "Are we to marry the natives? Would you not be provoked intodestroying us so that none survived? This is our sin. None can survive in your presence." Ezra 9:13

"You must keep all the commandments I give you sothat you will have the strength to conquer the land you are to enter and make your own." Deut. 11:8 "Annihilate the nations you are dispossessing and make your home in their country." Deut. 12:29 "Put the inhabitants to the slaughter without giving any quarter and burn their town down. In thisway the lord might turn from his fierce anger and show you compassion." Deut. 13:15 But keep inmind that, "you are sons of god, so be sure not to become unclean by eating any detestable animals,such as the pig or the unclean ruminating hare. You are to be a people most holy to the lord yourgod." Deut. 14:3 "Be firm and steadfast so that you may take possession of the land. Above all take care toobserve the entire law which my servant Moses enjoined on you. Do not swerve from it either to theleft or the right, so that you may succeed in all that you do. Keep this book of the law on your lips. Recite it by day and by night, that you may carefully observe all that is written in it. Then you willsuccessfully attain your goal. I command you; be firm and steadfast." Joshua 1:6 And you are holypeople. Remember, "When a woman menstruates she will be unclean for seven days. Anyone whotouches any furniture she sits on will be unclean. If a man dares to have sex with her he will also beunclean for seven days. She must wait seven days after she is freed from her affliction and offer twoturtle doves to the priest as atonement before the lord for her unclean flow. Warn the people of theiruncleanness lest it be the cause of their death." Lev. 15:28 And, "set apart the clean from the uncleananimals so you will not be contaminated by the uncleaness of the swarming creatures." Lev. 20:25

"We have betrayed our god by marrying the natives. But in spite of this their is still hope. Let us actin accordance to the law. Up! Take courage! To work!" Ezra 10:2 "We have acted very wickedlytowards god. We have not kept the commandments and customs laid down by Moses. I beg you,let your servant be successful this day." Neh. 1:7 "You have committed treason by marrying nativewomen. Give thanks to god and do his will by seperating away from the natives. 'Yes, it is our dutyto do what you say, until we have turned away god's wrath which has been kindled against us.'" Ezra10:10 We say, "god, you gave over these nations and these peoples and allotted these as our regions. They occupied the land. You multiplied their sons and daughters and led them to the land you hadtold them to possess. Their sons invaded and conquered the land and humbled the natives when yougave into their hands the natives of the land to be treated just as they pleased. They captured theirtowns and the fertile countryside, took possession of their goods, cisterns already dug, vineyards andolive groves and fruit trees in profusion. They ate; ate their fill and regaled themselves. But theyhave been disobedient and thrust your law behind their back. They were obstinate. They would notobey. Your prophets admonished them, but they would not listen. They would not renounce theirwickedness. They have not kept your law. They have been ignoring your warnings. Because of oursins the leaders of the natives are now disposing of our riches, such is the disaster we endure." Neh.9

"The lord your god has brought you into the land he swore hewould give you, with cities not of your building, houses full of good things not furnished by you,wells you did not dig, vineyards you did not plant." Deut. 6:10

"the lord your god will do the same to all the nations through which you pass. The lord your godhimself is fighting for you." Deut. 3:32 "Fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion." Gen. 1:28 "If you are besieging a place do not cut down the trees but eat the fruit. (Yes, be sure to eat the fruitof that fruit tree!) Are the trees human that you should be beseiging them too? However if a treeis not a fruit tree you may mutilate it and hack it down." Deut. 21:19 "Put the men to the sword, butthe women and all the spoil you may take as booty. This is how you are to deal with far away lands. But in the lands that nearby you must not spare a living soul." Deut. 20:10

Have I not warned you, as the prophets said? Were not the words of those prophetstrue? Now the land has become foul because of the filthiness of the natives. It is filled with filth fromend to end because of the foulness of the natives.

"If a man hassex with a slave girl he is not to be punished. She is a slave." Lev. 19:20 But, "when a man and awoman have sex, they will be unclean until evening." Lev. 15:18 "When you go to war against yourenemies and you see a beautiful woman and find her desirable, you may take her. If she ceases toplease you send her away." Deut. 21:10 "They waged war as god had commanded them and killedevery male. But they kept the women as captives and took their wealth as spoil. Moses was enraged. 'So you spared the women? Kill every woman who has had sexual intercourse but keep the virginsfor yourself. Divide them up evenly.'" Num. 31:7, 14 And remember, "if anyone sleeps with amenstruating woman, they must both be cut off from the people." Lev. 18:19

"I saw that the people were marrying foreigners. Their childrenwere even learning foreign languages. I called down curses on them. I struck them and tore the hairout of their heads and made them swear by god, 'you will not marry foreigners. Foreign women area cause of sin. Must we hear that you, too, are committing this grave crime, playing a traitor to godand marrying foreign women?' I expelled them from my presence. Remember them, oh god, for thedegradation they brought upon the priesthood, the covenant, and the levites." Neh. 13:23 "So Ipurged them of everything foreign. I drew up regulations defining everyone's duty. Remember me,oh god, for my happiness." Neh. 13:30

Yes the land is foul because of the filthiness of the natives. The land is filled with filth from end to end because of the foulness of the natives...

Yes, the land has become foul because of the filthiness of the natives. It is filled with filthfrom end to end because of the foulness of the natives. They have become disgusting in our sight anda thorn in our side. Because of our sin against god the leaders of the natives are now disposing ofour wealth. The land is even fouler because of the filthiness of the foreigners. It is foul and filthyfrom end to end because of the foulness of the foreigners.

"Keep your word tomarch as the lord's vanguard, until the land is subdued before him. This region shall be yours!" Num.32:20 "Drive out all the natives before you. You shall take possession of the land and settle it, forI, the Lord, have given it to you as your property. Divide it up among your clans." Num. 33:52 "Undertake under oath and curse to walk according to the law of god and observe all thecommandments of the lord our god, his customs and his laws. In particular we will not give our sonsand daughters to the natives of the land. If the natives come to buy and sell we will buy nothing fromthem." Neh. 10:29 "Slaves you may possess, but make sure they are foreigners. You may also makeslaves of the natives who dwell among you and from their children who are born and reared in yourland. You may own them as chattels and leave them to your sons as their heriditary property, makingthem slaves forever. But you should not lord it over your own countryman, your own kinsmen." Lev. 25:44 And keep in mind, as the wisdom proverbs teach, that, "mere words will not keep a slavein order. He may understand, but he will not respond. Pamper a slave and he will be ungrateful. Awhip for the horse, a bridle for the donkey, and a rod for the back of a fool. Folly is rooted deep intothe hearts of children. A good beating will drive it out of them. Do not withhold discipline from achild. Do not be a partner in their eternal damnation." Remember, "When a man beats a slave sohard that he dies in a day or two, he shall not be punished, for the slave is his property." Ex. 21:20 As the wisdom proverbs teach us, "Better to be a nobody, and yet have a slave, then to play thegrandee on an empty stomach. Under three things the earth shakes, four things it cannot bear: aslave becoming king, a fool gorging himself, a hateful woman dressing for a wedding, and a slaveoverthrowing his master."

"Take the blasphemer outside the camp and stone him. Carry outthe commandment that the lord your god has given you." Lev. 24:23 Make sure that the priest is amale. As the wisdom proverbs teach, "wonderful is the birth of a boy but cursed is the birth of a girl. I have seen one man in a thousand who is wise, but never a wise woman." And that one man in athousand will be found in the pulpit. "Honor as sacred the priest who offers up the food of your god,treat him as sacred, because, I, your god, am sacred." Lev. 21:7 "If a man has no next of kin, thegoods shall fall to the priest." Num 5:8 "Every sacred contribution that the people are obligated tomake shall fall to the priest." Num. 5:9 "Accept their offerings. Assign them to the levites." Num7:4 "I give you the priesthood as a gift. Any layman who approaches shall be put to death. The lordsaid to the priests, 'I myself have given you charge of the contributions and sacred offerings forever. Every male among you may partake of them. I have also assigned to you the best of the new oil andof the new wine. The breast and the right leg are yours. They are yours forever by unbreakablecovenant, to last forever. To the levites I assign all the tithes. Only the levites may perform theservice forever." Num 18:8 And the lord your god is holy, so, "no crippled or blind person, or anyhunchbacked dwarf shall approach the altar to serve as a priest. This would be an abomination to thelord." Lev. 21:18

"When a man sells his daughter as a slave, she shall not go free as male slaves do, unless she provesdispleasing to her master." Ex. 21:7 "If a husband is overcome with a fit of jealousy which makes him suspecthis wife, whether she is guilty or not, then he must bring her to the priest. The priest will prepare thewaters of trial by ordeal and force the woman to drink it, saying, 'let this ordeal water enter yourbody.' If her stomach swells painfully, she is guilty. Her name will become a curse among all her kin. Such is the law, for women owe obedience to their husbands." Num 5:11 "If a man rapes a girl inthe city, you must stone him to death, and the woman as well, for she did not cry for help. Ridyourself of this wickedness." Deut. 22:24 "When a woman gives birth to a boy she shall be unclean for seven days, but if she gives birthto a girl she shall be unclean for fourteen days, with the same uncleanness as with her menstruatingperiod. She shall spend 33 more days becoming purified of her blood, for a boy, and for a girl 66days. She shall not enter the sanctuary or touch anything sacred. After she has been purified shemust offer a turtledove as a sin offering for her unclean blood." Lev. 12:1

"If, "you keep all the laws of your god, you will be his very own people,and praise and renown and honor will set you high above all the nations." Deut. 26:17 "Observegod's royal law carefully and you will display your wisdom and understanding to other peoples. When they come to hear of these laws they will exclaim, 'no other people is as wise and prudent asthis great nation.'" Deut. 4:6

Numbers 21:2 "And Israel vowed a vow to the LORD, and said, "If thou wilt indeed give this people into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their cities." And the LORD hearkened to the voice of Israel, and gave over the Canaanites; and they utterly destroyed them and their cities."

Numbers 33:52 "Then you shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you ... and you shall take possession of the land and settle in it, for I have giventhe land to you to possess it. But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you, then those of them whom you let remain shall be as pricks in your eyes and thorns in yoursides, and they shall trouble you in the land where you dwell. And I will do to you as I thought to do to them."

Deuteronomy 2:1 "When the LORD your God brings you into the land which you are entering to take possession of it, and clears away many nations before you ...and when the LORD your God gives them over to you, and you defeat them; then you must completely destroy them; you shall make no peace treaties with them,and show no mercy to them. You shall not make marriages with them, giving your daughters to their sons or taking their daughters for your sons.For you are a people holy to the LORD your God; the LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for his own possession, out of all the peoples that are on theface of the earth."

Deuteronomy 7:16 "And you shall destroy all the peoples that the LORD your God will give over to you, you will who them no pity ... If you say in your heart, ‘These nations are greater than I; how can I dispossess them?’ you shall not be afraid of them ... until those who are left and hidethemselves from you are destroyed. You shall not be in dread of them; for the LORD your God is in the midst of you, a great and terrible God. The LORD your God will clear away these nations before you little by little; you may not make an end of them at once"

Deuteronomy 9:3 "Know therefore this day that he who goes over before you as a devouring fire is the LORD your God; he will destroy them and subdue thembefore you; so you shall drive them out, and make them perish quickly, as the LORD has promised you."

Deuteronomy 20:15 "In the cities of these peoples that the LORD your God gives you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that breathes, but you shall utterly destroy them."

Deuteronomy 31:3 "The LORD your God himself will go over before you; he will destroy these nations before you, so that you shall take their land .. And the LORD will destroy them. And the LORD will give them over to you, and you shall do to them according to all the commandment which I have commanded you."

Deuteronomy 33:27 "Destroy. So Israel dwelt in safety, the fountain of Jacob alone, in a land of grain and wine; yea, his heavens drop down dew.29 Happy are you, O Israel! Who is like you? ... Your enemies shall come fawning to you; and you shall tread upon their heads."

Joshua 9:24 "The LORD your God had commanded his servant Moses to give you all the land, and to destroy all the inhabitants of the land from beforeyou."

Judges 21:11 "This is what you shall do; every male and every woman that has lain with a male you shall utterly destroy." And they found among the inhabitants of Jabeshgilead four hundred young virgins who had not known man by lying with him; and they brought them to the camp atShiloh, which is in the land of Canaan.""Kill every woman who has had sexual intercourse with a man and kill every male among the little ones, but keep the virgins for yourselves ... divide them upevenly."

1 Samuel 15:3 "Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have; do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox andsheep, camel and ass.’"

1 Samuel 15:18 "And the LORD sent you on a mission, and said, ‘Go, utterly destroy the sinners, the Amalekites, and fight against them until they areconsumed.’"

Joshua 8:24 "When Israel had finished slaughtering all the inhabitants of Ai in the open wilderness where they pursued them and all of them to the very last had fallenby the edge of the sword, all Israel returned to Ai, and smote it with the edge of the sword."

Joshua 10:20 "Joshua and the men of Israel had finished slaying them with a very great slaughter, until they were wiped out."

Judges 11:33 "And he smote them from Aroer to the neighborhood of Minnith, twenty cities, and as far as Abelkeramim, with a very great slaughter. So theAmmonites were subdued before the people of Israel."

Judges 15:8 "And he smote them hip and thigh with great slaughter."

1 Samuel 17:57 "And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in hishand."

1 Samuel 19:8 "And there was war again; and David went out and fought with the Philistines, and made a great slaughter among them, so that they fled beforehim."

1 Samuel 23:5 "And David and his men went to Keilah, and fought with the Philistines, and brought away their cattle, and made a great slaughter among them."

2 Samuel 1:1 "David had returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites."

Esther 9:5 "So the Jews smote all their enemies with the sword, slaughtering, and destroying them, and did as they pleased to those who hated them."

Tuesday, 10 August 2021

THE 'HISTORICAL' CHRONICLES




The ‘historical' Chronicles of the Bible.
On the infallible inerrancy of scripture.
Sola scriptura?
Historical revisionism in the Bible

The conflicting history of Kings and Chronicles



The Bible book of Chronicles was written specifically for the purpose of disagreeing with the portrayal of history, doctrine and the interpretation of events in other narratives. The Chronicles consist of edited versions of events recorded in other books. There are two ‘historical' books that share many features in common, the books of Kings and Chronicles. The books are similar in style and cover much of the same ground. The significance of Chronicles is found in the numerous deletions as well as the consistent pattern of divergence from earlier ‘historical fact' that are found in earlier books. It has been traditional to blame these differences on a slip of the pen and copyist error, but this explanation proves to be inadequate upon examination. Because it is impossible to determine just which account was historical fact and which was political propaganda or polemic these manuscripts disprove the doctrine of the infallible inerrancy of scripture. It is impossible to establish history using the simple principle of sola scriptura (which means only scripture). The Bible is not inerrant, but is contradictory, and proves to be complex and not simple.

      There is a consistent pattern of minor changes in seemingly inconsequential details found throughout the books of Chronicles. If someone was said to own three horses, in the Chronicles this would be changed to read that they owned five. It has become customary to insist that such divergence can be considered ‘copyist errors'. However the pattern is so consistent that when one considers the overall revisions present in the book it suggests that such changes were deliberate. As well one must wonder how a book full of ‘copyist errors' can be held to be ‘inerrant'. (But I digress.)

      In the following example, ‘copyist error', so often held to blame when numbers are inconsistent, was also responsible for changing calvary into infantry. We are told that David killed 700 Aramaeans in chariots and forty thousand horsemen, mortally wounding Shophach. (2 Samuel Chapter 10 verse 18) In 1 Chronicles Chapter 19 verse 18 the edited version states that David killed 7,000 Aramaeans in chariots and forty thousand infantry men, killing Shophach.

In the book of Samuel we are told that Jesse had eight sons.

"And Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel. And Samuel said to Jesse, "YAHWEH has not chosen these." And Samuel said to Jesse, "Are all your sons here?" And he said, "There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is keeping the sheep."" (1 Samuel Chapter 16 verse 10)

"Now David was the son of an Ephrathite of Bethlehem in Judah, named Jesse, who had eight sons." (1 Samuel Chapter 17 verse 12)

      As was his habit, as you shall see, the Chronicler sees fit to ‘correct' the author of Samuel on this matter. Jesse, we are told, had seven sons.

"Jesse was the father of Eliab his first-born, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh." (1 Chronicles Chapter 2 verse 13)

      The Chronicler was also inclined to fix up certain stories which had obviously been 'incorrectly' told in the earlier manuscripts. In the book of Samuel we are told that Saul inquired of God, but did not receive an answer. In the Chronicles Saul died for his unfaithfulness in not consulting God. The fault lay not with God, for not answering, but rather will Saul for not asking. These are minor theological 'corrections' that the Chronicler so often makes to the earlier versions of stories.

"And when Saul inquired of YAHWEH, YAHWEH did not answer him, either by dreams, or by Urim, or by prophets." 1 Samuel 28:6 (1 Samuel Chapter 28 verse 6) (1 Samuel Chapter 28 verse 6)

"So Saul died for his unfaithfulness; he was unfaithful to YAHWEH ... and did not seek guidance from YAHWEH. Therefore YAHWEH killed him." (1 Chronicles Chapter 10 verse 13)

      It would seem that the author of the Samuel accounts could not keep his facts and figures straight, and delivered erroneous results of the census, requiring, once again, editorial revision. In 2 Samuel Chapter 24 verse 9 the result of the census was Israel 800,000 and Judah 500,000. In 1 Chronicles Chapter 21 this is ‘corrected' to read Israel 1,100,000 and Judah 470,000. The Samuel account also kept faulty books. According to 2 Samuel Chapter 24 verse 24 David paid 50 shekels of silver for the plot of land on which the temple was to be built. In 1 Chronicles Chapter 21 verse 22 this is ‘corrected' to read 600 shekels of gold. The reasoning behind this constant readjusting of figures is difficult to know for certain. Did the author consider his sources superior?

      In the book of 1 Kings Chapter 4 verse 26 we are told that Solomon had 40,000 horses. 2 Chronicles Chapter 9 verse 25 states that he had 4,000 horses. Solomon had 3,300 foremen according to 1 Kings Chapter 5 verse 16 , and 3,600 according to 2 Chronicles Chapter 2 verse 2 . The two pillars were 18 cubits high as described in 1 Kings Chapter 7 verse 15 . This was of course wrong. According to 2 Chronicles Chapter 3 verse 15 they were 35 cubits high. Solomon's molten sea held 16,000 gallons (1 Kings Chapter 7 verse 26) or 24,000 gallons (2 Chronicles Chapter 4 verse 5) . And either 420 talents of gold were brought from Ophir for use in the temple construction (1 Kings Chapter 9 verse 28) or 450 talents (2 Chronicles Chapter 8 verse 18) . Solomon had 550 overseers (1 Kings Chapter 9 verse 23) or only 250 (2 Chronicles Chapter 8 verse 10) . When he began to reign Jehoiakim was either 18 and reigned 3 months after which time his uncle took the throne (2 Kings Chapter 24 verse 8) or 8 and reigned 3 months and 10 days and then his brother began to rule (2 Chronicles Chapter 36 verse 9) . Ahaziah was either 22 when he came to the throne (2 Kings Chapter 8 verse 26) or 42 (2 Chronicles Chapter 22 verse 2) .

      Baasha died in the 26th year of Asa's reign. (I Kings Chapter 16 verse 6) Baasha fortified the city of Ramah in the 36th year of Asa's reign. (2 Chronicles Chapter 16 verse 1) Baasha died in the 36th year of Asa's reign. (2 Chronicles Chapter 16 verse 1) Asa did not remove the high places (1 Kings Chapter 15 verse 14) Asa removed the high place shrines. (2 Chronicles Chapter 14 verse 2) The Kingdom was at peace under Asa (because he knocked down the high place shrines). (2 Chronicles Chapter 14 verse 5) There was war between Asa and Baasha all throughout their reigns (because he did not knock down the high places). (1 Kings Chapter 15 verse 16)

      It would seem to be customary for the chronicler to disagree with the presentation of certain kings as it is given in the books of Kings. Jehoshaphat did not remove the high places. (1 Kings Chapter 22 verse 42) Jehoshaphat removed the high place shrines. (2 Chronicles Chapter 17 verse 5) Now it is obvious that either he did remove them or he didn't, but you'll never find out one way or the other by consulting the Bible. Only one of these mutually exclusive accounts can be true, and the other was probably a piece of political propaganda.

      Now it might be a little easier to understand the chronicler's penchant for correcting everything and everybody under the sun when we keep in mind how convoluted and contradictory the manuscripts of the Bible really are. For example consider the following mind bender from the books of Kings. Jehoram, the son of Ahab, began his reign in the second year of the reign of Jehoram, son of Jehosophat. (2 Kings Chapter 1 verse 17) Jehoram son of Jehosophat began his reign in the fifth year of Jehoram, son of Ahab. (2 Kings Chapter 8 verse 16) And if you can get your mind around that mobius, you might also be able to straighten out the following. Omri became king in the 31st year of Asa's reign and he reigned 12 years. (1 Kings Chapter 16 verse 23) When Omri died his son Ahab came to the throne and this was in the 38th year of Asa's reign. (This means that Omri could have only reigned 7 years, not 12 as stated.)

      The chronicler was not blind to the confused and convoluted state of affairs found in the earlier Biblical manuscripts. Chronicles was one of the last books written, and probably was an attempt by the priests to set things straight. This is not to suggest that the version of events in Chronicles is thus 'correct' for the Chronicler wrote about events that were even further removed from his own time than in the original manuscripts he worked from. The Chronicler had an agenda as well, upgrading this king and downgrading another, as just one example, and this has to be kept in mind when reading his work.

      And, by the way, sorting all this out is very important if one wishes to use the Bible to determine the exact age of the earth, something that was obviously important to the priestly chronicler, as a large part of the opening of the first book is devoted to sorting out the confused genealogies of earlier works, important if you want to get the age of the earth nailed down (around six thousand years, give or take) since it is allegedly by ‘decoding' all the genealogies and the lengths of reigns of this, that or the other king that one can trace back through the Bible to the origins of the planet. In the end, scholars have come up with multiple historical schema based on these documents, which should not surprise anyone, since the Bible makes nothing crystal clear itself, and none of these schema have unanimous support.

      In the book of 2 Kings Chapter 9 verse 27 , we are told that Jehu shot Ahaziah with an arrow near Ibleam, and that Ahaziah escaped to Meggido, where he died In 2 Chronicles Chapter 22 verse 9 we are told that Ahaziah was captured in Samaria, where he had been hiding out. He was then brought to Jehu who had him put to death. The Kings of Syria and Israel failed to conquer Ahaz, according to 2 Kings Chapter 16 verse 5 , and, of course, according to 2 Chronicles Chapter 28 verse 5 , they did conquer Ahaz. (I guess we will never know for sure.) If one wishes to attribute all these differences and inconsistencies to ‘a slip of the pen' then one can only assume that the chronicler was an extremely inept and sloppy printer.

      God was moved to anger with Israel and so inspired David to take a census. (2 Samuel Chapter 24 verse 13) It was Satan who inspired David to take the census (the change was obviously made for ‘theological' reasons). (1 Chronicles Chapter 21 verse 1) As punishment for the census and its aftermath, David is given the choice of running from his enemies for three months, or 7 years of famine (2 Samuel Chapter 24 verse 13) or was it 3 years of famine (1 Chronicles Chapter 21 verse 11) .

      The chronicler did not hesitate to correct other biblical authors as well. The father of Zerubbabel was either Shealtiel (Ezra Chapter 3 verse 2) or Pedaiah (2 Chronicles Chapter 3 verse 19) . Josiah was followed on the throne by either Shallum (Jeremiah Chapter 22 verse 11) or Jehoahaz (2 Chronicles Chapter 36 verse 1) .

      The chronicler was not fool proof. The mother of Abijah was either Maachah, Absalom's daughter (2 Chronicles Chapter 9 verse 20) or Michaiah the daughter of Uriel (2 Chronicles Chapter 13 Verse 2) . But then, as the saying goes, no one is perfect.

      The above catalogue of historical inconsistencies is by no means complete, but even what you find here should be enough to keep those who attempt to harmonize the Bible busy for a considerable time. That the Bible does not contain pure ‘historical' documents should be self evident, since so many of the conflicts in its pages are polemical. No amount of archeology can be expected to demonstrate the ‘historical accuracy' of Biblical narratives, because they simply are not historical. When an archeological find mentions a person or place in the Bible, but gives a variant version of events, we recognize that we are reading political propaganda and polemic, and it is common to dismiss the variant.

WAS THE TORAH COMPOSED IN THE TIME OF MOSES

Evidence from the Bible indicates that many Torah laws were written later than the time of Moses The late date of the Torah composition  Whe...